Situation Plan: What is it and what is it for in architecture?
Anyone involved in an architectural project knows that there are several steps to be taken until the time for the execution of the work arrives. One of these steps is to do the situation plan.
This plan is one among many that the architect needs to make so that his project meets all the necessary requirements. To give you an idea, there are also floor plans, basement, mezzanine, floors and roof.
But, in the case of the situation plan, it is part of the technical project and also needs to be included in the legal project that is delivered to the city hall for approval of the work. Later, it will be added to the executive project, as it has essential information for the construction site personnel.
But then, since it’s such an important document, what is the situation blueprint? See below.
What is situation plan?
The situation plan is the document presented in 2D, usually done in software such as AutoCAD, which shows the location of the terrain in a more open plan. It is also commonly referred to as the lot location plan.
In this plan, the architect will draw, in a simplified way, the top view of the land where the building will be built. It also shows what is in the closest surroundings, such as neighboring land and cross streets.
It is necessary to inform in this plan the formats, dimensions and location of the lot. Thus, this plan is represented by elements such as the contours of the land, the block where the land is located, neighboring lands and the main nearby reference points.
As this is a plan of the entire external part around the land where the construction will be, it comes before the other plans. It is the initial part of the project, which the architect uses as a basis to determine how the building will be built within the site.
Difference between situation plan and location
For those who are not familiar with the subject, there is a certain amount of confusion when it comes to understanding the situation, location, location and implantation plans. These are very common nomenclatures when designing the project, but they are not always clear.
So, to understand once and for all: a location plan is the same thing as a location plan or a deployment plan.
While the situation plan shows the situation of the lot in relation to the lots and streets around it, the location plan only shows the implementation of the project within the lot.
Therefore, it is in this plant that you will have information such as where the walls, fences, accesses, paths, level curves, swimming pool, hydraulic and drainage networks and the like will be located. It is focused on what will be within the land to be built.
Technical standards for the situation and location plan
For each plan and each document made by the architect, there are Technical Standards to be followed. Every piece of information, every line thickness that appears in your technical drawings, there is a reason and a pattern to be followed.
Who determines these Regulatory Norms is the ABNT (Brazilian Association of Technical Norms). In the specific case of the situation plan and location/location/implantation plan, NBR 6492 is used, which determines the following premises:
- Graphic representation zymology according to the Standard;
- System of referential terrain coordinates, contour lines;
- North indication;
- Indication of access roads to the building, internal roads, parking lots, covered areas, plateaus and slopes;
- Terrain perimeter, topographical landmarks, general elevations and main levels;
- Indication of the external limits of the buildings:
- Setbacks and withdrawals;
- Project axes;
- Mooring the project axes to a reference point;
- Name of buildings;
- Scale identification;
- General notes, reference drawings and professional stamp.
What is a humanized localization plant?
Making humanized plants is quite common. Humanized plants are colorful and more detailed drawings about what will be in a given space. This makes it easier to present and explain to the customer.
This same strategy is done for the other plans, such as the floor plan or perspective. Thus, the architect makes very detailed drawings of the coverings, furniture, and even adds the client and their pets to involve him in the project. This is humanizing.
But, when sending the project to the city hall or the construction site, only the technical plan is used, only with the lines, numbers and information, without being colored and with unnecessary details.
Location Plan and Scale Situation Plan
Scales are very important for any professional working with technical drawing. In the case of architecture, scales are used to represent in miniature the proportion of the real size of objects and elements.
As it is not possible to draw a wall, a door or a tree in its full size, proportion scales are used to give you a logical idea of the size of the things in the drawing.
Thus, in the case of the location plan, the most used scales are 1/100, 1/200, 1/250, 1/500 and 1/1000. For the situation plan, the most used scales are 1/500, 1/1000 and 1/2000.
These scales can vary by lot size and design. If it is a large batch, larger scales will be used. For a small batch, smaller scales. It’s always based on proportions.
But this is a part that matters to technicians, and the customer doesn’t need to know exactly how it works. He just needs to understand that everything that is represented in the plants is in proportional size.
Location plan and situation plan how to do it?
When starting the project with the situation and location plan, the architect needs to take some essential factors into consideration.
To start with, he will only start the project after he has already made the first meeting with the client. Then you will have an idea of what needs to be done.
Master plan, location zone and municipal requirements
Just as there are Technical Norms to prepare a project within the standards established by ABNT, there is the municipal master plan. This plan must be consulted before starting to draw up the situation and location plan.
These requirements determine what are the minimum mandatory distances and setbacks for construction in relation to other lots and public areas.
It is also necessary to assess sunlight and natural ventilation to ensure that the building is healthy. All these factors will determine the placement of the building within the lot.
After knowing the required setbacks and the weather conditions that will favor the construction, the architect also assesses the topography of the land.
This means that when a terrain is steep, with a higher part and a lower part, the architect will use the higher part for the main part of the building. Thus, it will be possible to better enjoy the winds, the sun and the views.
Customer’s Likes and Needs
Allied to the two previous factors, there is also the customer’s taste and needs. That’s why the first step of a project is the meeting with the client.
At this meeting, the architect will understand what he is being hired for: whether it is a residential, commercial or corporate project; whether it is house or building.
If you are a customer for a house, for example, he will try to understand the customer’s ideas, what he expects for that house, for how many people it will be. Also, what the customer wants to have in that space.
Anyway, this is a personal conversation, after all, the architect is going to build a person’s dream house, and it needs to be perfect. By knowing your customer well, it is possible to offer personalized solutions, and that makes all the difference.
Execution of plans
Once the architect has all the information needed to make the situation and location plan, he usually uses software called AutoCAD to make his drawing. There are others, but this is the one most used by technical drawing professionals.
In addition, architects and engineers now have the benefit of using Google Maps to find the exact region of the lot and use it as a basis for making their plans. So the design is much more faithful to reality.
Then, the professional will victories the aerial image of Google Maps using AutoCAD and will create their plans, always respecting all the Technical Norms and also the factors mentioned in the previous topic.
Once this step is completed, he makes a presentation to the client and then creates the other plants that are part of the project. When everything is decided, then the project is approved by the city hall and the executive project that goes to the construction site is done.
While the project is put into practice, the architect will monitor the work to ensure that everything is done according to what he designed and specified.
And, finally, the architect does the so-called As Built, which is a manual for using the building so that the client knows all the details in case they need to make future renovations or repairs, without compromising the building.